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Website Terms of Use

Carefully read the following Terms of Use ("Terms of Use") before using the portal page Vanguard.com and its domestic business line websites, including, investor.vanguard.com, retirementplans.vanguard.com, institutional.vanguard.com, and advisors.vanguard.com (collectively, "Site"). By using this Site, you agree to follow and be bound by these Terms of Use. If you do not agree, do not use the Site.

This Site is owned and operated by The Vanguard Group, Inc., and all of its subsidiaries and affiliates (collectively, "Vanguard").

User License. Vanguard grants you a limited, revocable, nonexclusive, nontransferable license to use, view, store, bookmark, download, display, stream and print the pages and any content (collectively, "Content") within this Site solely for your personal and noncommercial use or as expressly authorized by Vanguard in writing. Vanguard reserves all rights not expressly granted in these Terms of Use.

Third Party Content. The Site may provide third party content ("Third Party Content"), which Vanguard believes is obtained from reliable sources. Vanguard, however, does not guarantee and is not responsible for the accuracy, timeliness, completeness, or suitability for use of such Third Party Content. Further, Vanguard is not responsible for and does not prepare, edit, or endorse the content, advertising, products, or other materials on or available from any website owned or operated by a third party that is linked to this Site via hyperlink.

Timeliness of Content. All content on this Site is presented only as of the date published or indicated, and may be superseded by subsequent market events or for other reasons. You are responsible for setting the cache settings on your browser to ensure you are receiving the most recent data.

No Investment Advice. Content developed by Vanguard or third parties contained on this Site should not be considered by you or others as legal, tax, investment or other advice. Nothing contained on the Site or any Content constitutes a solicitation or recommendation by Vanguard or a third-party to buy or sell any securities or other financial instruments. You alone will bear the sole responsibility of evaluating the merits and risks associated with your use of such Content when using the Site or taking any action related to your account.

Notices. Products and services provided to you through this Site may involve the electronic transmission, including via any e-mail address you provide to us, of information that you may consider to be personal financial information or promotional and marketing materials, and you consent to such transmission.

Privacy. Vanguard's Privacy Policy applies to its use and collection of your data from the Site. You should review the Privacy Policy before using the Site.

Intellectual Property. Content contained on this Site is owned or licensed by Vanguard and its third-party information providers and is protected by applicable copyrights, trademarks, service marks, and/or other intellectual property rights. Such content is made available solely for your personal, non-commercial use.

Pursuant to Section 512(c)(2) of the Copyright Revision Act, as enacted through the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Vanguard designates an agent as described below to receive notifications of claimed copyright infringement by mail: Pamela Crocker, Senior Counsel, The Vanguard Group, Inc., P.O. Box 2600, V-216, Valley Forge, PA 19482-2600. The designated copyright agent can also be reached by telephone at (610) 669-6100, and by e-mail at intellectualproperty@vanguard.com.

Compliance with Laws/International Use. You agree to comply with all laws, rules, codes, and regulations of the country in which you reside and the country from which you access this Site. Each investment product and service referred to on this Site is intended to be made available only to U.S. residents. This Site will not be considered a solicitation for or offering of any investment product or service to any person in any jurisdiction where such solicitation or offering would be illegal. Persons residing outside the United States are invited to visit Vanguard's website for non-U.S. investors for more information about products and services available to them.

Other Agreements. If you are currently a Vanguard client, then these Terms of Use supplement and incorporate by reference any other agreements you may have with Vanguard. If there is a conflict between these Terms of Use and any other agreements you have with Vanguard ("Other Agreements"), those Other Agreements shall control.

Modifications. Vanguard may periodically modify, add or remove portions of these Terms of Use, and any such modifications will be effective immediately upon posting. You agree to periodically review these Terms of Use for modifications.

Termination and Suspension. Vanguard, in its sole discretion, reserves the right to temporarily or permanently suspend or terminate your access to and use of this Site or any related functionality at any time and for any reason whatsoever, without notice or liability. The rights granted to you herein terminate immediately upon your violation of any of these Terms of Use. Vanguard will not be liable to you or any third party for any suspension or termination of your access to or use of this Site.

Warranty Disclaimers

YOU EXPRESSLY UNDERSTAND AND AGREE THAT YOUR USE OF THIS SITE IS PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" AND "AS AVAILABLE" BASIS. TO THE FULL EXTENT PERMITTED UNDER APPLICABLE LAW, VANGUARD AND ITS DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, AND EMPLOYEES ("VANGUARD PARTIES") AS WELL AS ITS AGENTS, LICENSORS, ANY THIRD PARTY CONTENT PROVIDERS AND VENDORS ("THIRD PARTIES") EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF TITLE, MERCHANTABILITY, NONINFRINGEMENT, AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND ALL WARRANTIES REGARDING SECURITY, CURRENCY, CORRECTNESS, QUALITY, ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS, RELIABILITY, PERFORMANCE, TIMELINESS, OR CONTINUED AVAILABILITY, WITH RESPECT TO (I) THE SITE; (II) CONTENT, PRODUCTS, OR SERVICES AVAILABLE ON OR THROUGH THE SITE; (III) USE OF THE SITE, CONTENT, PRODUCTS, OR SERVICES; AND (IV) THE RESULTS OF THE USE OF THE SITE, CONTENT, PRODUCTS, OR SERVICES.

FURTHER, THE VANGUARD PARTIES AND ITS THIRD PARTIES EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO ANY DELAYS OR ERRORS IN THE TRANSMISSION OR DELIVERY OF ANY CONTENT, PRODUCTS, OR SERVICES AVAILABLE THROUGH THE SITE.

EXCEPT AS PROVIDED BY LAW, NEITHER THE VANGUARD PARTIES NOR ITS THIRD PARTIES HAVE ANY RESPONSIBILITY TO MAINTAIN THE CONTENT, PRODUCTS, OR SERVICES OFFERED ON THE SITE OR TO SUPPLY CORRECTIONS, UPDATES, OR RELEASES FOR THE SAME.

TO THE EXTENT ANY JURISDICTION DOES NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF CERTAIN WARRANTIES, SOME OF THE ABOVE EXCLUSIONS MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. THIS WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS, AND YOU MAY HAVE OTHER RIGHTS, WHICH VARY FROM JURISDICTION TO JURISDICTION.

Limitation of Liability

YOU ACCESS AND USE CONTENT AVAILABLE ON OR THROUGH THIS SITE AT YOUR OWN RISK. YOU ARE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE TO YOUR COMPUTER OR OTHER EQUIPMENT, OR LOSS OF DATA THAT MAY RESULT FROM SUCH ACCESS OR USE.

VANGUARD PARTIES AND ITS THIRD PARTIES ARE NOT LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE, OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF PROFITS, REVENUE, INCOME, GOODWILL, USE, DATA, OR OTHER INTANGIBLE LOSSES, OR DAMAGES CAUSED BY THEFT, UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS, SYSTEMS FAILURE, OR COMMUNICATIONS LINE FAILURE, OR THE COST OF PROCURING SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES, CAUSED BY THE USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE THE SITE, MATERIALS, OR ANY PRODUCTS OR SERVICES PROVIDED HEREIN, OR ANY OTHER MATTER RELATING TO THIS SITE, EVEN IF VANGUARD HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. SOME JURSIDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE EXCLUSIONS OR LIMITATIONS MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. TO THE EXTENT THAT A JURISDICTION DOES NOT PERMIT THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF LIABILITY AS SET FORTH HEREIN, THE LIABILITY OF VANGUARD AND ITS AFFILIATES, SUBSIDIARIES, DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, LICENSORS, AND ANY THIRD PARTY INFORMATION PROVIDERS AND VENDORS IS LIMITED TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW IN SUCH JURISDICTIONS.

Indemnity. You agree to indemnify, defend, and hold harmless Vanguard Parties and its Third Parties from and against all claims, demands, liabilities, damages, losses, or expenses, including attorney's fees and costs, arising out of or related to your improper access to or use of this Site, or any violation by you of these Terms of Use.

Integration and Severability. If any provision of these Terms of Use is deemed unlawful, void, or unenforceable, then that provision will be deemed severable from these Terms of Use and will not affect the validity and enforceability of the remaining provisions. These Terms of Use represent the entire agreement between you and Vanguard relating to the subject matter herein.

Applicable Law and Venue. Unless otherwise indicated in Other Agreements, the laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, United States of America, without regard to conflict of laws, govern these Terms of Use and any dispute that might arise between you and Vanguard. Unless a dispute would be governed by an applicable arbitration clause, if you take legal action relating to these Terms of Use, you agree to file such action either in the Court of Common Pleas of Chester County, Pennsylvania, or the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania and in no other venue, and you consent and submit to the personal jurisdiction of those courts for the purposes of litigating any such action.

Revised October 12, 2020